Requirements for employees are changing due to rapidly developing technologies that have become firmly embedded in all spheres of our life. Specialists need to continuously upgrade their level of professional competence, improve their qualifications, adapting to the conditions dictated by the world.
Many professions are becoming a thing of the past, and instead, we see new professions which we did not know about even 10 years ago. In these conditions, you need to quickly retrain, learn the basics of new, sought-after professions.
And finally, career growth is impossible today without mastering additional knowledge and skills. Specialists from different fields today must be capable of continuous self-education in order to have a good opportunity to occupy a niche in the modern labor market.
This works both in Russia and abroad. The further vocational education (FVE) system in Russia
In our country, the FVE system is developed to a certain extent. It is part of the general education system and represents a set of programs and state standards.
The system of further vocational education in Russia includes institutions and organizations that implement these programs. There are many public organizations whose main statutory purpose is educational activities in the field of vocational education, as well as associations and unions of educational institutions, public and state-public associations, scientific and methodological councils, additional education management bodies, enterprises, organizations subordinate to them.
In Russia, several types of vocational education are accepted: professional development, professional retraining and internship. Each type of FVE has its own characteristics. Professional development
is carried out throughout the entire work activity and is aimed at ensuring a new quality of professional functions. These can be short-term or long-term courses, thematic and problem seminars. Upon completion of the training, students receive a certificate of advanced training. Professional retraining
is aimed at mastering programs to perform a new type of work. Retraining makes it possible to change the direction of professional activity at the already existing level of education. After undergoing retraining, students receive a certificate of professional retraining. The internship
can be carried out without prior training, it is a way of professional development or retraining through direct participation in labor activity.
Thus, one can choose the most appropriate form of training and professional development that they would need as a particular specialist.
Where can one get additional professional education in our country today?
Currently, the FVE system in Russia is a fairly extensive structure.
Specialized institutions of further vocational education are the core of FVE system in Russia. These include educational employment centers, universities, commercial educational institutions, specialized schools, private courses, etc. One of the structural branches of the system are institutions of industry and intra-company training (industry training centers, training and course complexes, advanced training courses, etc.).
The largest structural branch of the FVE system includes many institutions of basic vocational education, which also provide services in the field of F VE. These are vocational schools that interact with local employment centers to train the unemployed in specialized working specialties, and secondary vocational educational institutions (technical schools, lyceums, colleges) that provide educational and related services, and, of course, higher educational institutions (institutes, academies, universities) that provide retraining and advanced training of managerial and engineering personnel. Another branch of the system of further vocational education is represented by individual and private forms of educational activity (tutoring, home schooling, apprenticeship, etc.). Additional professional education for foreign citizens in Russia
According to the Federal Law of 29.12.2012 No. 273 "On education in the Russian Federation", foreign citizens also have the right to receive education in our country. This applies not only to secondary and higher professional education. Foreign citizens can also receive further vocational education in Russia. And I should note that every year the number of foreign citizens enrolling in Russian educational institutions increases, including training in additional professional programs. This is due to the growing interest in Russian educational programs for advanced training and professional retraining, as well as with the growing interest in our country as a whole.
As a rule, foreign citizens from among the specialists of foreign companies, organizations and institutions, as well as individuals, enroll in additional professional programs.
Foreign students studying at Russian universities on the main educational programs of secondary vocational and/or higher education and having the right to study in additional professional programs are not required to pass the educational recognition procedure, since they study at Russian universities.
The educational organization enrolls them for training in the same way as with Russian students. They will receive a qualification document (a certificate of advanced training or professional retraining) after graduation from a Russian university.
As for foreign students who have not studied at Russian universities before, they will need to go through the education recognition procedure. In the Russian Federation, recognition of education received in a foreign state is carried out in accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation governing the recognition and establishment of equivalence of foreign education and the legislation of the Russian Federation. Expert comments:
According to part 3 of Article 78 of the Federal Law No. 273 "On Education in the Russian Federation" of 29.12.2012, foreign citizens have the right to receive secondary vocational education, higher education and further vocational education at the expense of budget allocations of the federal budget, budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation or local budgets in accordance with international treaties of the Russian Federation, federal laws or the quota established by the Government of the Russian Federation for the education of foreign citizens in the Russian Federation, as well as at the expense of individuals and legal entities in accordance with agreements on the provision of paid educational services. In addition, part 5 of the article establishes a number of additional rights and social guarantees for foreigners studying within the quota: tuition at the expense of federal budget allocations, payment of academic scholarships, throughout the entire period of study, regardless of academic success, provision of places in a dormitory.
Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 891 of October 8, 2013 established an annual quota for education in the Russian Federation of foreign citizens and stateless persons, including compatriots living abroad, received in educational institutions under educational programs of secondary vocational education, higher education and additional vocational education at the expense of budget allocations of the federal budget, not exceeding 15 thousand people.
It should be borne in mind that, according to part 3 of Article 76, additional professional programs are allowed to be mastered by:
- Persons with secondary vocational and (or) higher education;
- Persons receiving secondary vocational and (or) higher education;
This means that persons enrolling in institutions of further vocational education must meet these criteria. A few words about foreign models of additional professional education
There are established models of additional professional education in European countries and in the USA.
For example, in the USA, training and advanced training of technical specialties is called continuous education. It is built on two components:
- Training, organized at the request of the student them self with personal and professional goals.
- Training in specific training programs that provide for obtaining relevant experience in practice.
There is another model of additional vocational education — continued education. It is defined as "continuous vocational training" and is carried out mainly in the workplace.
The purpose of this model is to create an alternative system to improve the relationship of education with the sphere of production. This model of FVE is considered effective and convenient for students. Such education reacts very quickly to changes in the economy, labor market, etc., and is also diverse in forms, implemented not only in the workplace, but also as evening education. This model of further vocational education is widespread in European countries, namely in Germany, England, Sweden, France.
The essence of the "continuous professional training" model is that education is carried out in certain periods that alternate or run parallel with work throughout life. In the postgraduate training of a specialist, this alternation of work and study becomes commonplace in the adult education system.
Just as in Russia, it is possible to get additional vocational education abroad in various educational organizations — in universities (university training centers), or in educational institutions established at enterprises. In addition to educational organizations, there are educational associations where you can get further vocational education. For example, in France there is a national association for professional adult education, which includes 130 training centers.
An interesting form of FVE is widespread in Canada and in the USA — "Experience-based learning", which is based on a close connection with the practical professional activities of students. Currently, many US organizations have based their educational activities on the TLC («think, learn, create») strategy. More than 400 companies and 20 specialized educational organizations implement programs for engineers in organizations and in educational and methodological centers. These programs include practical seminars, organization of video and computer classes at enterprises. The purpose of such program is to teach the employee creativity and creative activity.
In the modern concept of additional professional education of adults abroad, education is increasingly cooperating with work. The framework separating professional activity and education is gradually disappearing. FVE goes beyond the educational organizations, and more and more organizations are opening their own internal training centers for training, retraining and advanced training of their employees. FVE programs abroad are aimed at mastering new technologies and competencies.
It seems that the experience of foreign countries can be successfully used in FVE programs in Russia.