Review: campuses in scientific foreign publications
Campuses are not a new thing here. For example, the main part of the campus of St. Petersburg Polytechnic University was built in 1900-1905.

Campuses, or — previously — student tows, were mostly built during the existence of the USSR. A large program of construction of new and expansion of existing campuses is being implemented. There are discussions in the Russian information space about what should be on campus, how to organize it, what the city where the campus is located should get, how the life of students will improve after its construction, etc. It is interesting that most of the publications in the scientific literature in foreign publications concern other issues relevant to the information field of Europe and the USA. At the same time, analyzing what our sworn friends write about, we can conclude whether there is something useful for us in their experience. I would like to share some interesting results of search.
The most cited publication containing the words "campus" and "university" in the Scopus system is "Campus Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review of Prevention Research From 2000 to 2015" – it has 305 citations. The article raises the problem of sexual violence on college campuses committed since 2000. The relevance for our country is questionable.

The second most cited publication (288 citations) is, expectedly, "Faculty Service Loads and Gender: Are Women Taking Care of the Academic Family?". The authors analyzed 140 organizations and found that, on average, female teachers do significantly more work than men, taking into account rank, race/ethnicity and region or department.
The third most cited publication is: "Are we in crisis? National mental health and treatment trends in college counseling centers". The article was cited 164 times. The authors analyzed the work of 340 university centers of psychological assistance over 5 years. An increase in stress, depression, and anxiety was revealed. The authors noted that, at the same time, there were no problems with nutrition in the assessment sites.
Another frequently-cited publication (235 citations) on this topic is "Increased rates of mental health service utilization by U.S. College students: 10-year population-level trends (2007-2017)". The article presents an analysis of the results of surveys of 155 thousand students from 196 campuses, which showed an increase in acquired lifetime diagnoses from 2007 to 2017 from 22% to 36%, respectively.
Of course, such a barrage of problems needs to be solved. The article "Changes in alcohol use as a function of psychological distress and social support following COVID-19 related University closings" (140 citations) reports that the analysis of alcohol consumption in 1958 students showed an increase during the month. At the same time, those students who were supported socially felt less need for alcoholic "support" of learning.
If students need to drink, then it is clear that the issue of food could not be ignored in the most popular publications. The article "College students and eating habits: A study using an ecological model for healthy behavior" (136 citations) states that unhealthy snacks, high-calorie food and other enemies of a successful student are caused by the lack of an instilled nutrition culture from parents, lack of involvement in cooking and low physical activity. The topic is discussed in the article "Student Hunger on Campus: Food Insecurity Among College Students and Implications for Academic Institutions" – it was revealed that 15% of students experience problems with nutrition.
The authors of another article (also from the USA) decided that students may experience both these problems and published the article "Simultaneous Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among College Students: Patterns, Correlates, Norms, and Consequences".
Another solution to the problem in the USA is described in the article "College student marijuana involvement: Perceptions, use, and consequences across 11 college campuses". The study participants were 8,141 students from 11 universities. The authors note that additional research is required to analyze the consequences of lifting the ban.
The authors of the article "The relationship between corporate social responsibility, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment: Case of Pakistan higher education" from Pakistan attempted to analyze the connection between job satisfaction and the commitment of the campus organization. Expectedly, a significant connection was detected. It was revealed that the test participants who fit the subject of the article have "significantly higher perceived peer and friend norms than nonusers".
Of course, you need to somehow move around a large campus. In the article "To scoot or not to scoot: Findings from a recent survey about the benefits and barriers of using E-scooters for riders and non-riders", the authors interviewed 1,256 university employees and found that 36% of them use electric scooters to move around.
In turn, journalists conducted research on how students and university staff members get to campus. For example, the article "The effectiveness of parking policies to reduce parking demand pressure and car use" describes the analysis of the path to the University of Michigan. The authors found that issues unrelated to the price of parking (time required for finding a parking spot, time required to get from parking lot to campus) are of little interest to employees.
The popular topic of digital twins for campuses was presented in the article "Developing a Digital Twin at Building and City Levels: Case Study of West Cambridge Campus". The whole process of digitalization of the campus is described here. Or course, this can be useful for its optimization.
In the article "International students experiences in China: Does the planned reverse mobility work?", the authors discussed whether university campuses in China are a place of attraction for Asian students and whether they contribute to their decision to stay in China forever. The topic of research is even where students look when they walk around the campus: this was researched in the article
"Eye movements during everyday behavior predict personality traits". This article describes a study with 42 participants who were sent on various assignments around the campus. The authors concluded that by examining the movements of the eyes alone, it is possible to identify such indicators as neuroticism, extraversion, complaisance, conscientiousness and perceptual curiosity.
Classic articles about campuses are also cited, but not enough. For example, the article "The campus as a smart city: University of Málaga environmental, learning, and research approaches" examines the use of the Internet of Things on the example of the State University of Malaga campus, has a total of 44 citations.
The method of evaluating campuses proposed in the article "Campus score: Measuring university campus qualifications" is interesting. The authors note that in comparison withthe Shanghai assessment methodology, it predicts better the indicators of the number of graduates and "freshman retention" – the share of those who remain to study after 1 year. The authors proposed the index called "Campus score", calculated by a number of parameters. At the same time, the assessment is based not only on rating indicators, but also on the analysis of data from online geoinformation services (OpenStreet-Map, Google Earth images). Even the geographical structure of the campus is evaluated by 7 indicators, each of them has 3 values. Two main output parameters (freshmen retention and the number of graduates) are associated with 3 groups of criteria (urban, green, living). After analyzing a large array of data, the authors came to the conclusion that modernity and proper formation of the campus do not fully determine its success (buildings are not the most important thing), but well-formed "restorative environment" reduces the overall stress of students and the chances of their transfer to another educational institution.
A search in the Russian RSCI system for the keyword "campus" since 2015 has shown a small number of highly cited articles. For example, the most cited article got only 52 citations (a review article on the topic of socialization at the university). Further publications relate to social adaptation, development and implementation of computer-based learning tools in the educational process of physical education at the university, architectural issues of training. It is noteworthy that the methods of mathematical analysis that make it possible to compile adequate methods based on quantitatively measured data are used in a small number of highly cited publications in the RSCI.

The general conclusion from the presented publications is that the campus is a complex system of interaction between teachers and students. We should pay attention not only to the primary thing – what to teach — but also to how to teach and where to rest and recover after classes. In conditions of freedom of choice, the most attractive campuses will be those where learning process, based on quantitative methods, is the most effective in terms of the amount of acquired knowledge and less traumatic.
Alyona Shumetova

Head of center for international activity and media at Almetyevsk
State Oil Institute